abbrev. Boston Consulting Group.
abbrev. Break-Even Analysis.
abbrev. Break-Even Point.
abbrev. Business Intelligence Program
- Baby Boomers
the generation of people born between 1946 and 1959, a period of explosive population growth in Aust ... more
- Baby Bouncers
the generation of people who are the children of the 'baby boomers'; also referred to as Yuppie Pupp ... more
- Bachelor Stage
the first stage of the family life cycle.
- Backward Integration
a strategy for growth in which a company seeks ownership of, or some measure of control over, its su ... more
- Backward Invention
an product strategy in international marketing in which a company produces a less complex version of ... more
- Backward Marketing Channel
see Reverse Marketing Channel.
- Bad Question
in a survey or questionnaire, any question that distorts the fundamental communication between a res ... more
an eighteenth century term of British origin for a salesperson.
- Bait Advertising
an advertising practice, now illegal in Australia, in which attractive, low-priced goods, few or any ... more
- Bait Pricing
advertising an item at an unrealistically low price as 'bait' to lure customers to a store or sellin ... more
- Bait and Switch Pricing
advertising an item at an unrealistically low price as 'bait' to lure customers to a store or sellin ... more
- Balance Sheet Close
a closing technique in which the salesperson assists an indecisive prospect to list on paper the 'ar ... more
- Balance of Payments
the difference between the payments made to foreign nations and the receipts from foreign nations in ... more
- Balance of Trade
the difference between the value of the goods and services sold to foreign nations (exports) and the ... more
- Balanced Product Portfolio
a product strategy in which a firm maintains an even combination of new, growing and mature products ... more
- Balanced Tenancy
an attribute of a shopping centre or shopping mall which comprises a mix of retail stores carefully ... more
- Balloon Test
in marketing research, a projective interviewing technique in which respondents are presented with a ... more
- Banded Offers
see Banded Pack.
- Banded Pack
a consumer sales promotion in which two related product items are banded together and sold at a spec ... more
- Banner Advertising
online advertising that appears -- usually as a narrow strip -- across the top of many websites.
- Bar Chart
a two-dimensional graphic which shows data, in both absolute and relative magnitudes, in the form of ... more
- Bar Code
an arrangement of lines and spaces in code form used to identify a product by style, size, price, qu ... more
- Bar Code Scanner
see Bar Code; Scanner Systems.
anything that is purchased cheaply; an agreement made between two parties in which both have obligat ... more
trading off one thing against another in coming to an agreement or bringing a business deal to its c ... more
- Bargaining Power
the strength or influence one party has in a business negotiation; the capacity of one party to domi ... more
- Barriers to Entry
see Access Barriers; Market Entry Barrier.
an exchange in which one good is traded for another; money is not involved.
exchanging goods for others of equal value.
- Base-Point Pricing
a pricing method in which customers are charged freight costs from a base point; the base-point may ... more
- Basic Accounting Equation
the balancing relationship between a firm's assets and the sum of its liabilities and equity.
- Basic Stock
the level of inventory required to meet the desired service standard taking into account the expecte ... more
- Basing-Point Pricing
see Base-Point Pricing.
- Battle of the Brands
a term used in reference to the often intense competition between manufacturers' brands, wholesalers ... more
- Bayesian Decision Theory
a statistical approach to decision making characterized by assigning probabilities to any degree of ... more
- Behavioral Analysis
A sales management evaluation and control method for monitoring sales force performance. A behaviora ... more
in marketing, the way a customer acts towards a product or brand.
- Behaviour Intention Scale
a method of rating or predicting the likelihood of a prospective customer to purchase a particular p ... more
- Behaviour Segmentation
see Behavioural Segmentation
- Behavioural Data
information that describes the needs, urges, drives, desires and impulses which direct a consumer's ... more
- Behavioural Segmentation
the division of a market into groups according to their knowledge of, and behaviour towards, a parti ... more
- Behavioural Variables
factors related to the way in which an individual or organisation may act which may affect the outco ... more
- Behaviouristic Segmentation
see Behavioural Segmentation.
the notions or values of people in a community or society which have a high degree of persistence.
- Bells and Whistles
the optional features built into a basic product to satisfy or impress as large as possible a number ... more
a term used by SRI International in the first version of their Values and Lifestyle study (VALS 1) t ... more
- Belongingness and Love Needs
the desire for love and affection from others.
- Below-the-Line Advertising
all advertising by means other than the five major media - the press, television, radio, cinema and ... more
a standard, or point of reference, against which something else may be measured.
comparing the performance of an organisation's products or processes with those of competitors or a ... more
- Benefit Concept
the sum of the bundle of benefits in a consumer's mind which a particular product or brand delivers. ... more
- Benefit Segmentation
the division of a market into groups or segments on the basis of the particular benefit sought by ea ... more
- Benefit and Lifestyle Study
an approach to market segmentation in which data are gathered to enable consumers to be grouped acco ... more
- Benefit-in-Reserve Close
see Incentive Close.
- Benefits Sought
the specific advantages looked for in products when buyers purchase them.
- Benefits Sought Segmentation
see Benefit Segmentation.
- Benjamin Franklin Close
see Balance Sheet Close.
- Bernoulli Process
A probabilistic model in which the probability p that an event of interest occurs remains the same o ... more
- Beta Binomial Model
A probability mixture model commonly used to represent patterns of brand choice behavior or media ex ... more
- Beta Coefficient
in statistical analysis, an estimated regression coefficient that has been recalculated to have a me ... more
- Better Mousetrap Fallacy
the mistaken notion that if a company produces a technically better product than its competitors it ... more
see Interviewer Bias.
an illegal pricing practice in which firms that are tendering for the supply of an item collude in o ... more
a pricing method in which selling organisations bid for a buyer's custom; the bid is the seller's pr ... more
- Big Mac Scale
an approach to rating the cost of living in various economic sectors based on the percentage of week ... more
- Bill-Back Advertising Allowance
see Bill-Back Allowance.
- Bill-Back Allowance
a form of trade promotion in which retailers receive allowances from a manufacturer for featuring it ... more
- Bill-Back Display Allowance
see Bill-Back Allowance.
the amount of money spent on media buying by advertising agencies on behalf of clients.
the study of characteristics, such as age, gender and race, that individuals possess at birth and wh ... more
- Bird Dogs
individuals, sometimes junior salespeople, who seek out sales leads and prospects for more experienc ... more
a system of transportation requiring the transfer of containers from truck to aeroplane.
- Bivariate Regression Analysis
in statistical analysis, a technique that uses information about the relationship between a dependen ... more
- Black Box
a colloquial term for an electronic TV audience measurement system; an audiometer; a 'people-meter'.
- Black Box Model (of Consumer Behaviour)
a model used in the study of the buying behaviour of consumers; the model assumes that what takes pl ... more
- Black Economy
the portion of a nation's economic activity which does not appear in official records or statistics.
- Black Money
revenue which is earned by an individual or company which is not officially recorded for taxation pu ... more
- Blanket Branding
see Family Brand.
- Blanket Contract
see Blanket Purchase Order.
- Blanket Purchase Order
a purchase arrangement in which a buyer contracts with a supplier to take delivery of an agreed quan ... more
- Blocked Markets
markets, especially in foreign countries, to which entry permission is refused, or in which it is no ... more
- Blue Sky Laws
legislation intended to prevent sales to gullible investors.
A print of an ad, brochure, or other advertising materials produced on photosensitive paper (hence t ... more
- Body Copy
the descriptive paragraphs in a print advertisement (as opposed to the headlines.
- Body Language
a nonverbal form of communication in which posture, facial expressions, hand movements, etc, convey ... more
- Bonus Plan
a scheme for additional payments to salespeople to be made at the discretion of management for a par ... more
- Boomerang Method
hurling a buyer's objection back as a reason for buying. If, for example, a buyer objects that he or ... more
- Booz, Allen and Hamilton
a U.S. based marketing consulting firm, especially recognised for its studies of failure rates in ne ... more
- Boredom Avoidance
a term used to describe an approach to new product introduction or product differentiation; that is, ... more
- Boston Consulting Group
a Harvard-based marketing consultancy, best known for its portfolio analysis technique devised in 19 ... more
- Boston Consulting Group Advantage Matrix
a marketing planning tool devised by the Harvard-based Boston Consulting Group; taking as its axes e ... more
- Boston Consulting Group Portfolio Analysis Matrix
a tool, devised by the Harvard-based Boston Consulting Group, for use in product and strategic busin ... more
- Bottom Line
a colloquial term meaning 'profits'.
- Bottom-Up Approach to Planning
a participative approach to planning in which there is involvement at all levels; plans are develope ... more
- Bottom-Up Approach to Promotion Budgeting
an approach to promotion budgeting which takes as its basis the tasks that are thought to be necessa ... more
- Bottom-Up Approach to Sales Forecasting
an approach to sales forecasting which takes market conditions rather than the company's objectives ... more
- Bottom-Up Budgeting
an approach to budget-setting in which managers determine how much is needed to achieve each of thei ... more
- Boundary-Spanning Role
the difficult dual role played by sales managers and senior account managers who, in developing clos ... more
- Brain Drain
a term used to describe the effect on a nation when significant numbers of its best and brightest pe ... more
an idea generating process commonly used in new product development; the process encourages open com ... more
a name, sign, symbol or design, or some combination of these, used to identify a product and to diff ... more
- Brand Acceptance
see Brand Loyalty.
- Brand Advertising
the featuring of a particular brand in media vehicles in order to build strong, long-term consumer a ... more
- Brand Association
the particular thoughts and impressions that a consumer has of a brand; marketers usually attempt to ... more
- Brand Authorisation
the obtaining of distribution and display, usually of a consumer packaged good, through a retail out ... more
- Brand Awareness
see Brand Familiarity.
- Brand Bonding
building a strong relationship between a brand and consumers in order to grow and retain custom.
- Brand Category Extension
see Brand Extension.
- Brand Choice Models
These stochastic models of individual brand choice focus on the brand that will be purchased on a pa ... more
- Brand Competitors
competing brands of products which can satisfy a consumer's wants almost equally as well as each oth ... more
- Brand Concept
the image that the brand sponsor wants a particular brand to have; the desired positioning of the br ... more
- Brand Conviction
the strong attitude or attachment consumers have towards a particular brand.
- Brand Development Index
a ratio of brand consumption intensity to population intensity by country, state, city, region, etc.
- Brand Dilution
the weakening of the power of a brand which may occur when a company has too many brands and spreads ... more
- Brand Equity
a term used in reference to the value of a well-known brand; brand equity can greatly affect the buy ... more
- Brand Establishment
the building-up of a brand in the introductory stage of the product's life cycle; brand establishmen ... more
- Brand Extension
the use of a well-known brand name to launch a new product, of an unrelated category, into the marke ... more
- Brand Familiarity
the awareness consumers have of a particular brand.
- Brand Family
See Family Brand.
- Brand Franchise
the loyalty that attaches to a well-managed brand.
- Brand Harvesting
decreasing marketing expenditure on a brand to zero, or to a minimal level, when sales and profits b ... more
- Brand Identification Decisions
decisions relating to the type of brand to give to a product; four brand identity alternatives are a ... more
- Brand Identity
see Brand Image.
- Brand Image
the feelings, moods, emotions and connotations evoked by a brand. Also referred to as Brand Identity ... more
- Brand Insistence
the stage of brand loyalty where the buyer will accept no alternative and will search extensively fo ... more
- Brand Label
a label which gives the brand name of the product.
- Brand Leveraging
broadening a company's product range by introducing additional forms or types of products under a br ... more
- Brand Licensing
the leasing of the use of a brand to another company.
- Brand Life Cycle
a concept, building on the product life cycle concept, which states that brands also have a life cyc ... more
- Brand Loyalists
consumers who remain loyal to a brand over a long period of time.
- Brand Loyalty
a measure of the degree to which a buyer recognises, prefers and insists upon a particular brand; br ... more
- Brand Manager
an individual given responsibility for planning and co-ordinating the firm's marketing activities re ... more
- Brand Map
see Perceptual Mapping.
- Brand Mark
the part of a brand which can be seen but not spoken; the logo, symbol or design that forms part of ... more
- Brand Monopoly
a circumstance in which a particular brand dominates a market.
- Brand Name
the part of a brand which can be spoken; it may include words, letters or numbers.
- Brand Name Selection
the choosing of a brand name.
- Brand Name Selection Process
a systematic process for the development of a brand name that will increase a product's chances of s ... more
- Brand Parity
the similarity of one brand to another; in mature product categories, there are often few distinct d ... more
- Brand Personality
the feeling that people have about a brand as distinct from what the product can actually do.
- Brand Positioning
the development of the way in which a company wishes its brand to be perceived by consumers relative ... more
- Brand Positioning Map
a two-dimensional chart used as a tool in brand positioning; the market positions of major competing ... more
- Brand Power
the force a particular brand has to dominate its category through the magnitude of its recognition.
- Brand Preference
the stage of brand loyalty at which a buyer will select a particular brand but will choose a competi ... more
- Brand Promiscuity
consumer buying behaviour marked by an absence of brand loyalty.
- Brand Protection
legislation forbidding other firms from using a company's registered brand names or brand marks with ... more
- Brand Recognition
the stage of brand loyalty at which the buyer is aware of the existence of a particular brand but ha ... more
- Brand Reinforcement
activity associated with getting consumers who have tried a particular brand to become repeat purcha ... more
- Brand Repositioning
changing the appeal of a brand in order for it to attract new market segments; brand repositioning m ... more
- Brand Revitalisation
strategy employed when a brand has reached maturity and profits begin to decline; approaches to revi ... more
- Brand Revival
the resurrection of a brand that is being harvested or which has previously been eliminated; brand r ... more
- Brand Sponsor
the manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer who owns the brand.
- Brand Strategies
decision-making for the effective handling of brands; three general branding strategies are availabl ... more
- Brand Switching
the changing of support and conviction for one brand to a competing brand.
- Brand Vision
an organisation's clear view of what its brand is now and what it would like it to become in the fut ... more
see Brand Strategies.
- Branding Decisions
see Brand Strategies.
- Branding Strategies
see Brand Strategies.
- Breadth of Product Line
see Width of Product Line.
see Break-Even Analysis; Break-Even Point; Break-Even Pricing.
- Break-Even Analysis
see Break-Even Pricing.
- Break-Even Point
the point at which total revenue is equal to total cost.
- Break-Even Pricing
a method of pricing based on a determination of the number of units of a product that must be sold a ... more
in logistics management, the extracting of goods from large shipments from a manufacturer and distri ... more
- Breakthrough Opportunities
opportunities that are seen by innovative firms which develop hard-to-imitate marketing strategies t ... more
money offered to procure an action or decision in favour of the giver; bribery is an illegal busines ... more
- Bridge Buying
a practice in retailing in which buyers purchase enough of a supplier's product during periods when ... more
in advertising, a document given by a manufacturer or supplier to an agency to guide creation of an ... more
a term used in negotiating in which one party bluffs or pushes the other to the very limit on price, ... more
- Broad Assortment
an assortment strategy in which a reseller decides to carry a wide range of related product lines.
- Broadening Concept
the extension of marketing as a business philosophy to encompass the marketing activities of non-pro ... more
a leaflet, pamphlet, booklet or similar printed publication which provides information about an orga ... more
a disparaging term used to describe static internet websites that show or list the goods and service ... more
a marketing intermediary or middleman between buyer and seller; an agent.
a classification of consumer durables which includes television sets, radios and hi-fi equipment.
an unsatisfactory approach adopted by some companies to customer complaints; in this approach, the c ... more
- Buddy System
an on-the-job sales training method in which an experienced salesperson is responsible for the train ... more
a plan of estimated income and expenditure, or of the amount needed and available to carry out a pla ... more
- Budget Determination
see Advertising Budget Determination.
the process of financial planning of income and expenditure for the firm's various activities - mark ... more
- Budgeting Models
see Computer Modelling.
- Buffer Stock
- Build Strategy
decision-making aimed at increasing market penetration of existing products into existing markets or ... more
- Built-In Obsolescence
the deliberate design of a product in a way in which some component will break down or some feature ... more
- Bundled Pricing
the practice of offering two or more products or services as a single package at a special price; al ... more
- Bureaucratic Organisation
This term is associated with government, where official decision making is circumscribed by laws, ru ... more
- Burst Advertising Expenditure
a concentration of advertising expenditure over a limited time period.
- Business Analysis
a stage in the new product development process in which the information gathered in the screening, c ... more
- Business Buyer Behaviour
the way in which organisational buyers act or behave when making purchase decisions.
- Business Buying Process
Like consumers, the decisions organisational buyers make are affected by a range of influences: (i) ... more
- Business Conduct Guidelines
sets of rules or ethical standards, usually compiled by management, under an organisation wishes to ... more
- Business Customers
see Business Market.
- Business Cycles
historical patterns of prevailing economic conditions - prosperity, recession, depression and recove ... more
- Business District
a section of a city, suburb or other geographic location with a high density of commercial organisat ... more
- Business Guide
a journal, periodical, magazine or similar publication containing news and information about the siz ... more
- Business Intelligence
in marketing support systems, any information relevant to the operations of an organisation and the ... more
- Business Intelligence Program
a continuously evolving data-gathering program in which a company sources and analyses accurate and ... more
- Business Market
government departments as well as manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers and similar commercial enter ... more
- Business Mix
the combination of businesses in which a firm is engaged.
- Business Plan
a blueprint for building a company, containing a definition of the company's mission, identified opp ... more
- Business Portfolio
the mix of strategic business units and products that make up a company's total operations.
- Business Portfolio Analysis Matrix
a tool used in business analysis as a means of classifying a firm's products or business units for s ... more
- Business Strength
a measure of the ability a firm has to compete successfully in a particular market.
- Business-To-Business Marketing
see Business Market; Industrial Marketing.
- Business-to-Business Products
goods and services purchased by organisations for use in producing other products or in operating th ... more
- Buy Classes
buying situations categorised according to the prior experience of the buyer with the product and su ... more
- Buy One-Get One Free
A sales promotion offer made to either the retailer or the consumer in which purchase of one unit of ... more
in international marketing, a practice in which organisations sell plant, equipment or technology to ... more
- Buy-Back Allowance
A form of trade sales promotion in which channel members are offered an incentive to restock their s ... more
the individual who handles the actual purchase in a buying decision; a purchasing officer.
- Buyer Action Theory
a traditional point of view holding that a prospect buys after being guided through certain mental p ... more
- Buyer Behaviour
the study of consumers and organisations in relation to their purchase decisions.
- Buyer Decision Process
the stages through which buyers pass as they move from recognition of a need to the actual purchase ... more
- Buyer Dissonance
see Cognitive Dissonance.
- Buyer Intention Forecast
a method of predicting future demand for a product by asking potential buyers for their likely requi ... more
- Buyer Involvement
a measure of the time and effort a buyer is prepared to devote to the purchase of a particular item.
- Buyer Readiness Stage
the state of preparedness or willingness in which an individual consumer may be in regard to the pur ... more
- Buyer Readiness State
see Buyer Readiness Stage.
- Buyer Resolution Theory
the idea that a buyer decides to purchase only after mentally resolving five specific issues - need, ... more
- Buyer Role
In the buying process, the part played by the actual purchasers of a product as distinct from the us ... more
- Buyer Socialisation
the learning which individuals do from their parents, peers and sub-cultural groups which influence ... more
- Buyer's Market
a market in which there is an abundance of a particular good or service for sale.
- Buyer-Seller Dyad
the two-way flow of communication between buyer and seller.
- Buyer-Seller Interdependence
the close relationship between buyers and sellers, especially in organisational markets, where buyer ... more
- Buying Allowance
a trade sales promotion in which buyers are offered a price reduction for each carton, case, etc. pu ... more
- Buying Centre
everyone within an organisation who participates in a buying decision; categories of participants wi ... more
- Buying Committee
a group within a retailing organisation or chain which has responsibility for the purchase of mercha ... more
- Buying Cycle
the time taken by an organisation to complete its decision to buy.
- Buying Decision Process
see Buyer Decision Process.
- Buying Power
the resources, especially financial, that customers have at a given time.
- Buying Power Index
a tool developed in the U.S. for estimating the buying power of a district or region; the approach u ... more
- Buying Process
see Buyer Decision Process.
- Buying Signals
signs or indications, verbal or nonverbal, that tell a salesperson that the buyer is ready to buy.
- Buying Situations
see Buy Classes.
- By-Pass Strategy
One of five main competitive strategies available to a market challenger, a by-pass strategy is an i ... more
a secondary product produced during the process of manufacturing another.
- By-Product Pricing
a pricing method used in situations where a saleable by-product results in the manufacturing process ... more
243 terms found.
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